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Glossary Terms



Abdominal sonography is an ultrasound examination. It is performed during pregnancy to examine the uterus and the development of the unborn baby. Ultrasound allows us to get a picture of the internal organs.

Abdominaler Transversaldurchmesser

This is the transverse diameter of the abdomen of the unborn child given in millimeters. On the basis of this value, medical professionals can track the development of the unborn child and detect abnormal developments. The term is often abbreviated as ATD.


Abuse is the medical term for misuse, overindulgence, or dependence. It refers to the abuse of stimulants, medicines and drugs. The maternity record has information about whether a pregnant woman regularly consumes cigarettes, alcohol, other drugs or medication. This information is important because it can have an effect on the pregnancy or the unborn child.


Acupuncture is a traditional treatment method in Chinese medicine. In this method, needles are inserted into certain points on the body and removed after a specific time. It is intended, for example, to relieve pain or treat other signs of illness.


An amniotomy is the medical term for an obstetric procedure in which the amniotic sac is opened. In this procedure, the healthcare professional inserts a small instrument through the open cervix to break the amniotic sac. This procedure is performed especially in cases of particularly long pregnancies and births or if the unborn child is in critical condition.


Anemia is the medical term to describe a lack of enough healthy red blood cells. Anemia can cause pallor, poor concentration and dizziness in those affected and can make them more susceptible to infections. It is caused by a deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 or by internal or external bleeding. Anemia is treated by administering iron, hormones or blood transfusions.


In medicine, the term "anamnesis interview" is used to describe a conversation with a patient. Midwives, doctors or other medical personnel ask questions about a person’s history of illness or their lifestyle. During anamnesis in the context of midwifery care or prenatal check-ups, women are asked, for example, about previous pregnancies or whether they smoke, drink alcohol or take drugs.


Anti-D prophylaxis is a vaccination given to some expectant mothers. It is administered when the unborn child has inherited a blood group from the father that is incompatible with the mother's blood group. This vaccination takes place once between the 28th and 30th week of pregnancy and once after birth. This vaccination can prevent serious complications.


Antihistamines are a number of drugs that have an anti-allergic effect. These drugs weaken the effect of the body's own messenger substance histamine. This messenger substance causes the allergic reaction, in which the body triggers a strong defensive reaction to certain substances such as pollen, house dust or animal hair.


In medicine, antibodies are special proteins in blood that belong to the immune system. Antibodies bind germs and other substances in the blood that can be dangerous to humans. Pathogens and other substances unknown to the body can trigger the increased production of antibodies as a defense mechanism.


The Apgar test is the first examination of the newborn. This test assesses the health of the newborn. The child's breathing, pulse, reflexes, appearance and movement are examined and scored from 1 to 10. This score is used to determine what care the child needs and whether he or she needs to receive medical treatment.


An attending midwife is a midwife who works freelance in the maternity ward at a hospital. She concludes special contracts with individual hospitals for this purpose. A distinction is often made between an on-duty, attending midwife and a companion midwife. An on-duty, attending midwife works with other midwives in the team and shares the shifts in the delivery room with them. She attends all deliveries there and does not know most of the mothers beforehand. A companion midwife does not work hospital shifts and only attends the births in the delivery room if she is accompanying a pregnant woman who she has already been taking care of during the pregnancy.



A baby monitor is a device that transmits sounds or video images. It enables parents to hear when their baby starts crying in another room. This monitoring allows them to be away from the baby and still take action when the child needs them.


BAföG stands for Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz (German Federal Education and Training Assistance Act). This law establishes government aid for pupils and students. Children from lower-income families can apply for this social benefit in order to achieve diplomas and degrees such as Abitur, Bachelor or Master.


Balloon catheters are medical instruments that have a balloon attached to the end of a tube. In cases where labor is being induced, a balloon catheter with two balloons is filled with saline. They are positioned in front of and behind the cervix respectively. This procedure releases the body's own hormones, which can accelerate the childbirth process.


The term "breech presentation" refers to a position of the unborn child in the mother's abdomen that is unfavorable for childbirth. In this position, the baby's head is at the top of the mother's stomach and the feet or buttocks are at the bottom. Until the 36th week of pregnancy, it is not uncommon for the baby to be in this position, but giving birth in this position is associated with risks.


Benzodiazepines are prescription drugs which are used as sleep aids, sedatives, anxiety relievers and muscle relaxants. They work fast and can become addictive very quickly.


Bilirubin is a natural breakdown product of the red blood pigment. An elevated level of the yellowish substance in the blood can manifest itself as jaundice and indicate various diseases, including hepatitis, malaria or gallstones. Elevated bilirubin often occurs in newborns because the liver is not yet working properly.


Biotinidase deficiency is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. In this disease, the body can not properly process the vitamin biotin. Newborns are tested for this disease as part of newborn screening. It can be treated well with the administration of biotin, but can take a serious course if left untreated.

Biparietaler Kopfdurchmesser

This is the diameter of the head of the unborn child in millimeters. On the basis of this value, medical personnel can follow the development of the unborn child and, if necessary, recognize abnormal developments. Medical personnel usually use the abbreviation BPD.


A birth center is a facility run by midwives where women give birth. Pregnant women are cared for at these centers exclusively by midwives. Doctors are not present at the birth in most cases. Delivery in a birth center is only recommended for women who have not had any complications during their pregnancies. Many birth centers are located near hospitals so that mother and child can be transferred there in the event of an emergency.


Breast pumps are aids for pumping breast milk out of the breast by means of negative pressure. They are also called breast milk pumps or lactation pumps. If a mother cannot breastfeed her baby, the baby can still be fed with breast milk pumped from a bottle. There are both mechanical and electronic breast pumps available.


Breast engorgement is the term used to describe blocked milk ducts and the failure of milk to drain completely during breastfeeding, which can lead to swelling and pain in the breast. In more severe cases, it can lead to a breast infection with fever, called mastitis. Milk engorgement can usually be prevented by changing the breastfeeding position, changing how the infant latches onto the breast, using warm compresses, resting and completely emptying the milk in the breast. Midwives and breastfeeding experts can help with this.


Breast milk storage bags are special bags which can be used to store, freeze, transport or warm up expressed breast milk. They are usually made out of plastic and should only be used once.


A baby carrying consultant is a person who has been trained at a baby carrying training center to advise women on the correct way to carry their babies. Many parents develop back pain from carrying their baby due to poor posture. You will be helped with choosing the right baby carrier and be shown how to use it correctly during the baby carrying consultation.


Braxton Hicks contractions are irregular contractions that can already begin occurring in the 20th week of pregnancy. These contractions are usually perceived as tension or a pulling sensation in the abdomen. During a Braxton Hicks contraction, the uterus contracts and relaxes again. It strengthens the muscles and improves the blood supply to the placenta and the unborn baby. Braxton Hicks contractions are different from prodromal contractions, which only begin occurring in the 36th week of pregnancy, and from active labor contractions, which indicate the birth is imminent.


Bloody show is the medical term for light bleeding that occurs before the onset of childbirth. The so-called mucus plug, which closes the cervix during pregnancy, is loosened during this type of bleeding. The discharge may also be whitish. If this is the case, the discharge does not contain any blood. If bloody show does not occur along with contractions, it may still take a few days to deliver the baby.



In medicine, curettage is the surgical removal of the mucous membrane of the cervix or the mucous membrane of the entire uterus. This procedure is performed under general or local anesthesia and is used after miscarriages, for abortions, or to detect cancerous growths and inflammation.


Carnitine metabolic defects are very rare metabolic disorders. In this disease, the body can not produce enough carnitine. Newborns are tested for this disease during their second neonatal examination. This disease is treatable by administering carnitine or by following a certain diet. If left untreated, however, it can become serious.


The Coombs test is one of the maternity screening tests. In this test, the mother's blood is examined for compatibility with the unborn baby’s blood group. A negative result means that the blood groups are compatible. A positive result means that the blood groups are incompatible. If this is the case, it may be necessary to administer medications.


Covid-19 umgangssprachlich auch Corona genannt, steht für Corona Virus Disease 2019 und ist eine hochansteckende Erkrankung, die durch das Virus SARS-CoV-2 hervorgerufen wird. Das Virus verbreitet sich über die Luft mit Tröpfchen oder als Aerosol beim Husten, Niesen, Sprechen und bei engem Kontakt. Die häufigsten Krankheitsanzeichen sind trockener Husten, Halsweh, Schnupfen, Fieber und Störungen des Geschmacks- und Geruchssinnes. Ältere, immungeschwächte Menschen mit Vorerkrankungen haben ein höheres Risiko zu erkranken und auf schwerere Verläufe. Bei schwereren Verläufen kann es zu Entzündungen der Lunge, der Hirnhaut oder des Gehirns, aber auch zu Erkrankungen des Herz-Kreislauf-Systems, der Haut, der Leber oder der Nieren kommen. Langzeitfolgen mit unterschiedlichsten Beschwerden sind möglich. Eine Impfung ist neben den Einhalten von Abstand, Hygieneregeln und dem Tragen einer Alltagsmaske sowie dem Lüften von Räumen der bestmögliche Schutz gegen eine Erkrankung.


Cardiotocography is the medical term for a device used to monitor contractions during labor and pregnancy. This device is also used to record the heartbeat of the child during the prenatal check-ups carried out in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. A common abbreviation is CTG. During childbirth, it is used to check the length, strength and frequency of contractions.


Carpal tunnel syndrome is the medical term for the tension or stretching of the carpal tunnel, where various nerves and tendons in the wrist pass through. This syndrome may be accompanied by pain, tingling or numbness in the fingers. Rest, medication or surgery can provide relief in most cases.


Cradle cap, also known as infantile seborrheic dermatitis, is a white, yellowish to brown colored rash that develops in the first few days of life and usually disappears on its own by a baby’s first birthday. There is no medical reason to remove this harmless rash. Cradle cap should not be confused with itchy infantile eczema. Infantile eczema is an inflammation that can appear starting around the third month of life and it may need to be treated if it spreads.


The cervical cap, also called a contraceptive cap or FemCap, is a contraceptive device made of hard rubber, plastic or latex. It is inserted into the vagina and placed in front of the cervix. A gel is also applied that inhibits the mobility of sperm. The cervical cap can be inserted hours before sexual intercourse and should not be removed until a few hours after sexual intercourse. It must be adjusted by healthcare professionals before the first time it is used.


The cranial position is the position of the unborn baby in the mother's abdomen when the baby is head down in the uterus. 95 percent of babies are born in this position. The ideal position for childbirth is when the baby is in the cranial position and is also facing the mother's spine.


The crown-rump length is the length of the unborn baby measured from the top of the head to the rump or buttocks. On the basis of this value, medical professionals can follow the development of the unborn baby and, if necessary, detect abnormal developments. In the maternity record, the German abbreviation SSL is used for the crown-rump length.


A crying clinic is a place for parents to go whose babies cry a lot or have problems falling asleep or sleeping through the night, or whose babies have feeding problems. The relationship between the parents and baby and the babies themselves are examined by doctors, midwives, psychologists or physiotherapists at crying clinics. The families get help and the children get medical treatment if needed.


Cesarean section, also called a C-section, is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby. During a cesarean section, the abdominal wall and the uterus are opened through an incision and the baby is delivered through this opening. There are different reasons for performing a cesarean section and a distinction is made between a planned and emergency C-section. In planned C-sections, the baby is delivered before a natural birth begins because of the parents' wishes or a medical assessment made by doctors. An emergency C-section is performed when the birth has already begun and complications arise during delivery.


Colostrum is the breast milk produced during the first two to five days after giving birth. This breast milk has a yellowish tint, is thicker than regular breast milk and contains an especially high level of nutrients. Colostrum is easily digestible and has a high concentration of important ingredients, making it perfectly suited to the needs of newborns. Although babies can only drink small amounts directly after birth, they get all the nutrients they need with the colostrum.


Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral disease. This disease leads to fatigue, fever and an itchy rash all over the body. The virus spreads through talking, coughing, sneezing and direct skin contact. Once a person has had chickenpox, they can develop another disease later in life called shingles. Like chickenpox, shingles has contagious blisters. In rare cases, unborn babies can also be infected via the placenta. This can put the baby in great danger. Vaccination, which is recommended from the age of eleven months, provides the best possible protection for children and adults.


The central nervous system includes the nervous system of the brain and spinal cord. All perceptions, all thinking, feeling, remembering and all conscious movements of human beings are controlled, processed and passed on by means of this system. The central nervous system is often abbreviated as CNS.



The DHM + V rule stands for keep your distance, observe hygiene rules, wear an everyday mask and ventilate rooms. This rule helps curb the spread of infectious diseases.


The DHM rule, known in German as the AHA Rule, stands for keep your distance, observe hygiene rules and wear an everyday mask. In practice, this means keeping at least 1.5 metres away from other people, sneezing into the crook of your arm, washing your hands regularly and wearing a protective mouth/nose mask in everyday life. This rule helps curb the spread of infectious diseases.

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is the medical term for diabetes. This is a metabolic disease in which blood glucose levels are permanently elevated, which can affect organ function. Diabetes produces symptoms such as severe thirst, frequent urination, weakness and fatigue. The disease can be well treated by insulin therapy, physical activity and making dietary changes.


A diaphragm, also called a pessary, is a contraceptive device made out of silicone or latex. It is inserted into the vagina and placed in front of the cervix. A gel is also applied that inhibits the mobility of sperm. A diaphragm can be inserted hours before intercourse and should not be removed until a few hours after sex. It must be adjusted by a healthcare professional in a doctor's office or counseling center before the first time it is used.


Diphtheria is an infectious disease that used to be more common, especially in children. The bacteria that cause this disease spread through coughing, sneezing and talking, and the disease affects the respiratory tract and tonsils. People can be protected best from infection by getting vaccinated, which is already recommended for small children by the German Standing Commission on Vaccination.


The delivery room is the room in a hospital or birth center where babies are born. Depending on the institution, the staff working in a delivery room can include midwives, doctors and obstetricians.



The education package is a set of benefits that can be applied for by low-income families with children. They often are also called benefits for education and participation. The prerequisite for this type of support is that the person must be a recipient of the unemployment benefit II, social security benefit, social assistance, housing benefit or the child benefit supplement. The funding covers school excursions, school trips, transportation to school, learning support and lunch.


An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg does not implant in the uterus and instead implants itself in the fallopian tube. An ectopic pregnancy cannot be carried to term. It often leads to a natural termination of pregnancy. If this does not happen, serious complications can occur. Irregular bleeding despite a positive pregnancy test may indicate an ectopic pregnancy.


Eclampsia is a form of gestosis, which is sometimes referred to as pregnancy poisoning. The symptoms of this disease include high blood pressure, water retention, protein in the urine and seizures. The disease can occur during pregnancy after the 20th week of pregnancy and up to 6 weeks after delivery. The cause of this disease is not known and the consequences can be life-threatening for mother and child.


An embryo is a fertilized egg that has already formed an amniotic sac. This is the case about ten to twelve days after the egg is fertilized. The term fetus is used once the organs have formed, usually around the tenth week of pregnancy.


In medicine, an epicrisis is the final assessment of a case of illness. This assessment records the history, medical findings, course of the illness and the treatment measures taken. Information about the progression of the pregnancy, the first examinations of the newborn and during the postpartum period are summarized in the maternity record under epicrisis.

Errechneter Geburtstermin

The estimated due date, abbreviated as ED, is the date when a woman is most likely to give birth. The different calculation methods usually use the first day of the last period or the date of conception for the calculation. Around 80 percent of children are born in the ten days before or after the estimated due date. The date can also be recalculated and adjusted during pregnancy.


Estriol is a hormone produced by the body. The amount of estriol in the mother's blood increases especially during pregnancy. This is important for the unborn child’s development. Aside from pregnancy, synthetic estriol may be prescribed for treating certain menopausal symptoms or vaginal dryness, burning, itching, inflammation or fungal infections.


An extrauterine pregnancy is when the fertilized egg does not implant in the uterus. An extrauterine pregnancy usually can not be carried to term. This often leads to a natural termination of pregnancy. If this does not happen, serious complications can occur.


Edema is the medical term for an accumulation of fluid under the skin that causes swelling or a lump. Edema usually indicates a disease affecting the kidneys, liver or heart, or it is an indication of inflammation, allergies, drug intolerance or not enough iron in the blood. Edema is easily treatable with medications that stimulate urine production in the kidneys.


Estrogen is the generic medical term for different so-called sex hormones. Estrogens are found in all humans, but they play a particularly important role in the female body. They are produced in the ovaries, testes, adrenal cortex and placenta. Among other things, they have an influence on the female menstruation cycle, breast growth, and metabolism.


An epidural anesthesia (EA) is a medical procedure used during childbirth or other surgeries. It causes a loss of sensation below the insertion point on the spine. EA involves inserting a hollow needle directly into the so-called epidural space of the spinal column, where the pain-transmitting nerve fibers are located. Administering strong painkillers here eliminates the sensation of pain below the insertion point.


Excessive crying is when a baby cries for more than three hours a day, on more than three days a week, for more than three weeks. Usually, the baby is not suffering from a known illness. Babies find it difficult to regulate themselves due to stimuli and they are highly sensitive to stimuli. Thus, they have a hard time processing stimuli.



First trimester screening is a voluntary examination carried out between the 10th and 14th week of pregnancy as part of the recommended prenatal check-ups. During this examination, an ultrasound and the mother's blood levels are used to assess the risk of deformities or abnormal developments in the child.


A fistula is a tube-shaped cavity. In the body, a fistula connects internal organs with the skin surface or different organs with each other. Fistulas become problematic when they become inflamed and pus develops. Fistulas are easily treatable with antibiotics or surgery.


Folic acid, often called vitamin B9 or vitamin B11, is the technical term for a water-soluble vitamin. It plays an important role in metabolism, blood formation and in the development of the fetus. Folic acid is found mainly in vegetables and legumes. Since most adults do not consume enough folic acid, pregnant women and women who wish to conceive are recommended to take synthetically produced folic acid as a dietary supplement.


In medicine, the areas of the newborn's head where the bones have not grown together yet are called fontanels. The large fontanel is located at the center of the head. Smaller fontanels are located at the back of the head and at the temples. The fontanels allow the head to change shape during childbirth. The fontanels close by the age of three. They should be specially protected until then.


In biology, a fetus is an unborn child in the mother's womb which has formed its organs. In humans, this happens around the tenth week of pregnancy. The development of the fetus ends with birth. Before the internal organs are formed, the unborn child is called an embryo.


In medicine, the term fundus refers to the base or edge of an organ. The height of the fundus, also known as fundal height, is the distance between the upper edge of the uterus to the pubic bone, ribs and navel. These values are noted down in the maternity record. They can give medical professionals an indication of uterine dilation, the growth of the fetus and uterine involution, which is when the uterus returns to its former size.


The fetal position is the position of the unborn child in the mother's womb. Unborn babies often change their position up until the 36th week of pregnancy. The ideal position for birth is when the baby’s head is pointed downwards facing the mother's spine. Giving birth in a different position is associated with risks.


Fecal incontinence is a condition in which sufferers lose control over holding in their bowel movements. It may be due to certain medications, age, obesity, constipation, diabetes or other diseases, or as a result of childbirth. Fecal incontinence can be treated well in most cases with dietary changes, pelvic floor exercises, medication, weight loss or surgery.


Genetische Krankheiten

Genetic diseases are hereditary diseases that can be inherited in families. This does not mean that these diseases necessarily occur in every generation. They occur only in certain combinations of parental hereditary diseases.


Gestational diabetes is the medical term for a type of diabetes that only occurs during pregnancy. Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which blood glucose levels are permanently elevated, which can affect organ function. Gestational diabetes, which is found in four out of ten pregnancies, is usually temporary.


Gravida is the medical term for pregnancy. Accordingly, the number of pregnancies a woman has had is entered in the gravida field in the maternity record. This includes pregnancies that ended in miscarriage and other pregnancies that were not carried to term for various reasons.


Gravidogram is derived from the term gravida, which is the medical term for pregnancy. A gravidogram records all the important measurements taken during the prenatal check-ups conducted over the course the pregnancy. They give health professionals an overview of the development of the pregnancy.


The Guthrie test is a blood test performed on newborns. The test can detect metabolic diseases. The Guthrie test is rarely performed today. Instead, new testing methods are being used that can more accurately identify many more metabolic diseases.


Guardian and parental care are legal terms from German family law. Parental care includes, among other things, the duties and rights to care for, educate and supervise a child. These duties and rights are expected to be exercised and fulfilled in particular by the natural parents. In cases of unmarried couples, the mother initially receives custody. Through the mother's consent, the father can also get custody if he acknowledges paternity or undertakes a declaration of custody or files for adoption. If custody has been withdrawn or if the natural parents are still under 18 years of age, a guardian is appointed for the child.


A guardian is a person who has guardianship over a minor, which means the guardian is legally responsible for a child or adolescent. Guardianship is a legal term defined in the Civil Code. Like parents, a guardian has duties and rights to care for, educate, supervise, and determine the whereabouts of the child, or to have these duties performed by others.



In biology, hemoglobin is the blood pigment of the red blood cells. The role of hemoglobin is to bind and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. When the hemoglobin value is too low or too high in the blood, it can be a sign of various diseases.


A home birth is childbirth in a private home. It is an alternative to giving birth in a hospital or birth center. In a home birth, the mother is usually cared for by a midwife in her own home. This type of birth is not suitable for high-risk pregnancies.


hCG stands for human chorionic gonadotropin. It is a hormone that is found in the blood. The level of hCG increases when a woman is pregnant. It is important for the implantation of the egg and for the production of the hormone progesterone, which also plays an important role in pregnancy.


Hepatitis is a viral disease of the liver. The most common routes of transmission are sexual contact, coming into contact with blood or transmission from mother to child during childbirth. This disease is usually acute but can also be chronic. In chronic cases, it can lead to life-threatening liver diseases. Pregnant women are tested for hepatitis during their prenatal check-ups.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a viral disease of the liver. The most common routes of transmission are sexual contact, coming into contact with blood or transmission from mother to child during childbirth. This disease is usually acute but can also be chronic. In chronic cases, it can lead to life-threatening liver diseases. Pregnant women are tested for hepatitis B during their prenatal check-ups.


Herpes is a widespread viral disease that can trigger various illnesses in a weakened immune system. The virus is transmitted mainly through saliva or skin contact during an acute infection. Once a person is infected, he or she remains a carrier of this virus. Labial and genital herpes are the most common diseases. During pregnancy, acute infection with genital herpes can pose risks to the unborn baby.


Hib stands for the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type b. This bacteria can cause various respiratory diseases, meningitis, inflammation of the heart muscle or blood poisoning. Since this disease mainly affects young children, they are vaccinated against this bacteria several times during their first year of life. This vaccination is part of the basic immunization schedule and offers the best possible protection against disease.


HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. This virus attacks the body's defenses and thereby weakens the body. The most common routes of transmission are sexual contact and coming into contact with blood during blood transfusions or while using drugs without taking protective measures. Without treatment, the human immune system can no longer fight viruses, fungi or bacteria. As a result, these pathogens can cause life-threatening diseases. This immune deficiency is called AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Today, the virus is treatable through lifelong medication.


HPV stands for human papillomavirus. This virus the most commonly transmitted virus during sexual contact. The consequences of infection can be the formation of warts or cancerous growths. In women, these viruses are the second most common cause of cancer. The Standing Commission on Vaccination (STIKO) therefore recommends underage boys and girls be vaccinated against the virus.


Hydramnios stands for polyhydramnios, which is the medical term for an amniotic fluid disorder. This disorder is a rare pregnancy condition in which the amount of amniotic fluid in a woman's body is increased. This disorder has several causes and can lead to complications. Treatment is possible by performing a medical procedure in which some of the amniotic fluid is drained.


Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure can have several causes. Being overweight, drinking too much alcohol, consuming too much salt, and not getting enough exercise can all contribute to high blood pressure. If blood pressure is permanently elevated, it can lead to strokes, heart attacks or kidney damage.

hypoallergene Milchnahrung

Hypoallergenic baby formula, also called HA formula, and hypoallergenic baby food are special forms of nourishment that cause fewer allergic reactions. The proteins of the cow's milk found in these products are split in such a way that the baby's immune system does not perceive them as foreign substances. It was developed for babies who have an increased risk of allergies and cannot be breastfed. HA formula or food should always be given to babies after consulting a pediatrician first.


Hypotension is the medical term for low blood pressure. Low blood pressure can have various causes. Pregnancy, a low-salt diet, not consuming enough fluids, and being underweight can lead to low blood pressure. Low blood pressure is only treated when symptoms are severe and treatment does not pose a danger to those affected.



Induced abortion ends a pregnancy with medication or a medical procedure. The year of previous pregnancies and, if applicable, the method used to terminate the pregnancies are recorded in the maternity record.

Formloser Antrag

An informal application means submitting a letter instead of a form when making a request. Many applications or written contacts with authorities, offices, banks or workplaces do not require forms. An informal application requires the address of the recipient, the address of the sender, a subject line, a signature, the city and date.


Incubator is the medical term for a special enclosed crib used to maintain environmental conditions suitable for newborn babies. It can be used for premature babies. The child is placed in it after delivery. The temperature and humidity in the incubator are adjusted to ensure the survival of the premature baby as best as possible.

Isthmozervikale Insuffizienz

Isthmic cervical insufficiency or cervical insufficiency is the medical term for cervical weakness. Cervical weakness occurs when the cervix shortens prematurely during pregnancy and it opens too early and becomes soft. It can be detected during a prenatal check-up and treated by various measures.


Infant formula is the name given to a range of products suitable for feeding infants as a substitute for breast milk, particularly during the first six months of life. Infant formulas are made with a cow, goat or soy protein base. For babies at risk of allergies, there is also a hypoallergenic infant formula produced on the basis of split proteins.


Infertility treatment is the medical term for treatment that can have a positive effect on the possibility of a woman who wants to have children becoming pregnant. It includes hormone treatments and determining the optimal time for fertilization. Infertility treatments also include procedures to transfer sperm into the cervix, uterus or fallopian tube, or artificial insemination of an egg outside the mother's body. These types of treatments are recorded in the maternity record. These pregnancies are considered high-risk pregnancies and are monitored very closely.



Kangarooing, also known as kangaroo care, is when premature babies are placed on their mother's or father's chest. Through the warmth, skin contact, smell and voice of the mother or father, premature babies develop better, become calmer and develop a bond with their parents.



Lanugo hair is the hair on unborn babies which is mostly shed by the time they are born. In the mother's belly, this hair causes the custard-like vernix caseosa to stick. The vernix caseosa helps ensure that the baby's skin is protected from being softened by the amniotic fluid and from sound, pressure and vibration.


LCHAD deficiency stands for long-chain acyl-CoA dehydorgenase deficiency. LCHAD deficiency is a rare, inherited metabolic disease. It can cause hypoglycemia, cardiac arrhythmias and organ failure. During the newborn screening on the third day of life, newborns are examined for this deficiency and other metabolic diseases.

Linea nigra

Linea nigra is the medical term for the dark line that often runs from the belly button or breast down to the pubic bone in pregnant women. The reason for this natural discoloration in about 75 percent of pregnant women is the increased production of the hormone melanin, which is also responsible for tanning the skin.


A lactation consultant is a person who advises women on how to breastfeed a baby properly and how to have the baby latch on to the breast properly to nurse. Mothers can develop sore nipples, milk engorgement, or inflamed breasts due to improper latch-on and breastfeeding. One cause is often that the baby latches on to the breast incorrectly. During breastfeeding counselling, nursing mothers are helped with holding the baby and guiding the infant to the breast correctly.


Lochioschesis is a condition where the lochia, or the postpartum vaginal discharge, is retained the uterine cavity. The postpartum flow of this discharge is a natural reaction of the body after childbirth. It mainly drains the blood from the wound that develops when the placenta detaches. If the postpartum vaginal discharge suddenly stops or decreases significantly, or if you experience abdominal pain or fever, you may have lochioschesis. Lochioschesis can lead to inflammation, but it is easily treatable.



A positional anomaly occurs when the unborn child is in an unfavorable position in the mother's abdomen for childbirth. This means that the head of the unborn baby is not at the bottom of the mother's abdomen, facing the spine. Until the 36th week of pregnancy, this is not uncommon, but giving birth when the baby is in an unusual position is associated with risks.


Meconium is the name given to the newborn's first bowel movement. A newborn has this black-colored bowel movement 12 to 48 hours after birth. In some cases, the unborn child has already excreted it in the mother's womb. If this is the case, it may be necessary for medical measures to be taken immediately after birth. You should contact a pediatrician's office if the baby has still not passed the meconium more than 48 hours after birth,

Lebensmonat des Kindes

The month of the child's life is calculated from the child’s date of birth until one day before his or her birthday in the following month. It therefore does not correspond to a calendar month, but is a four-week period counted from the child's date of birth. It is particularly important for calculating the parental allowance parents are entitled to. Parental allowance is paid for months of life, which is why you should also plan your parental leave according to this counting method and not according to calendar months.


Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. It leads to inflammation of the respiratory tract, conjunctiva of the eyes and later to a rash all over the body. The virus spreads through talking, coughing, sneezing and direct skin contact. Vaccination can provide the best possible protection for children and adults. It is recommended starting from twelve months of age.


MCAD deficiency stands for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. MCAD deficiency is a rare, inherited metabolic disease. It can cause hypoglycemia, seizures and coma. During the newborn screening on the third day of life, newborns are examined for this deficiency and other metabolic diseases.

Meningokokken C

Meningococcus C stands for meningococcus bacteria type C. This bacteria can cause meningitis or blood poisoning. About one in ten people are carriers of this bacteria, which can spread through talking, coughing and sneezing. This disease mainly affects children, adolescents and people with weak immune defenses. The German Standing Commission on Vaccination recommends vaccination for these population groups, which is permitted starting in the second year of life. Vaccination is the best possible protection against the disease.


Midstream urine is urine that does not occur at the beginning or end of urination. It is required for urine samples because the urine at the beginning of urination is contaminated with germs from the urethra or external genital organs.


Mumps is a contagious viral disease. This infectious disease affects the salivary glands around the ears and other organs. The virus spreads through talking, coughing, sneezing and direct skin contact. Children and adults can be protected in the best possible way by getting vaccinated twice. It is recommended by the German Standing Commission on Vaccination starting from fourteenth months of age.


Maternity guidelines regulate the medical care that pregnant women should receive before and after giving birth. They are determined by experts on the German medical board known as Gemeinsamen Bundesausschusses (Joint Federal Committee). This committee decides the point in time and content of the examinations, tests, consultations, measures, records and certificates on pregnant women, which performed or issued by doctors and midwives.


Maternity leave periods are covered under the Maternity Protection Act; they regulate employment options before and after childbirth. In general, maternity protection lasts six weeks before and eight weeks after the birth. An expectant mother can object to the ban on working before the birth at her own request and can continue to work. The ban on employment after birth cannot be violated. Under certain circumstances, such as premature or multiple births, maternity leave may be extended to a total of 18 weeks.


The Maternity Protection Act regulates the protection of health for employees, students and trainees before, during and after childbirth. This law stipulates the bans on working, the protection of expectant mothers from dismissal, their compensation benefits, and the requirements for workplace risk assessments for pregnant employees.



Newborn screening is an examination of newborns performed between 36 and 72 hours after birth. During this examination, the newborn's blood is tested for various metabolic and hormonal disorders. The goal of newborn screening is to detect and treat congenital conditions before symptoms develop.


The neural tube is the technical term for the rudiments of the nervous system in unborn babies. In humans, the neural tube develops between the 19th and 28th day of gestation. The brain and spinal cord later develop from the neural tube.


Nipple shields are latex or silicone products designed to mimic a human nipple. They are used by some women when breastfeeding. They are placed over the nipple and are used especially when a lactating mother is experiencing breastfeeding problems and sore nipples.


A nursing cover is a large cloth that provides nursing mothers privacy while breastfeeding in public. It protects the mother's chest area from glances and helps the baby not get distracted by the environment.



Obesity is the medical term for describing the condition of being severely overweight. Obesity is when a person's excess weight takes on a form that results in various health problems and a reduced quality of life. Good nutrition and sufficient exercise can prevent or reduce obesity.

Ambulante Geburt

An outpatient birth refers to a birth in a hospital or birth center, after which the mother goes home with the baby after only four to six hours. This is possible if the mother did not have any complications during childbirth and if it can be ensured that the mother and child will be cared for at home.


Oligohydramnios is the medical term for a lack of amniotic fluid, which can have various causes. During ultrasound scans, an unusually small uterus may indicate a lack of amniotic fluid. Having the mother increase the fluids she is drinking can help in many cases. In more severe cases, a fluid is injected into the amniotic sac or the baby is delivered early.


Omega-3 fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids. Unlike saturated fatty acids, they cannot be produced by the body. These fatty acids are found in particular in fatty fish and vegetable oils. They have a positive effect on metabolism, heart function, vision, brain function and pregnancy. During pregnancy and breastfeeding, omega-3 fatty acids contribute to the normal development of the child’s brain and vision.

Osteopathische Behandlung

Osteopathic treatment is classified as a form of alternative and holistic medicine. Osteopathic treatment is mainly carried out by means of making certain hand movements on bones and muscles. These hand movements are supposed to be able to treat different symptoms.


Oxytocin is the medical term for a hormone that plays an important role in childbirth, among other things, and it is one of the so-called happy hormones. During childbirth, labor is induced when oxytocin is released or it is administered in the form of medication. Oxytocin also has an effect on breastfeeding, stress regulation, sexuality, and bonding between people.


Indirekter Coombs-Test positiv

The indirect Coombs test or ICT is one of the prenatal screening tests conducted during pregnancy. In this test, the mother's blood is examined for compatibility with the unborn baby’s blood group. A positive result means that the mother’s blood group and the blood group of the unborn child are not compatible. If this is the case, the mother can be administered so-called rhesus factor antibodies as a preventive measure.


Potassium is the technical term for a vital mineral that has many different functions in the body. Potassium is found in almost all types of food. Various diseases can lead to a potassium level in the blood that is too low or too high. This can have various negative effects. Too much or too little potassium in the blood can be treated well by taking medication or changing your diet.


Polio, or poliomyelitis, is an infectious disease caused by viruses. The disease is spread by coming into contact with urine or stool, or when talking, coughing and sneezing. Polio mainly affects children between the ages of three and eight. The polio vaccine is licensed for use in newborns starting from 2 months of age. It is recommended by the German Standing Committee on Vaccination and offers the best possible protection for children and adults.

Komplikationen post partum

Post partum complications is the medical term for all complications that occur after childbirth. These complications can have a wide variety of causes. Examples of complications after childbirth include postpartum depression, infections, inflammations or excessive postpartum bleeding.

Öffentliche Beurkundung

Public authentication, or notarization, is a prerequisite for certain legal agreements, declarations, deeds or contracts. This authentication is carried out by a notary or another authorized person. Only through this written form and the signature of the authorized person does the agreement, declaration, deed or contract become valid. Examples of documents which must be authenticated are custody declarations, marriage contracts or wills.


Para stands for parity. Parity in medicine means the number of births. Accordingly, para 1 or the term primipara means a woman has previously given birth.


Periodontitis, previously known as periodontosis, is inflammation of the tooth bed caused by bacteria. Periodontitis usually begins with inflammation of the gums, which is caused by bacteria in dental plaque. The gums and the bones surrounding them recede. They can potentially lead to painful gums, gums that bleed easily, wobbly teeth and tooth loss.


Percentile charts are benchmarks for making a comparison. With the help of these percentiles, deviations in a child’s growth from the average can be detected. As part of the childhood check-ups, a baby's height and weight are measured regularly to determine the baby’s growth curve. The percentile curves in the yellow U-check-up booklet help doctors and midwives determine whether a baby is developing normally for its age.


Phototherapy, often called light therapy, is a medical treatment using light. This form of therapy is used in newborns when they have neonatal jaundice. The special light can destroy the excess bilirubin in the child's blood so that it can be excreted by the kidneys. Bilirubin is a breakdown substance of the red blood pigment, and it causes the yellow discoloration of the baby's skin.

Placenta praevia

Placenta previa is the medical term for a condition in which the placenta is in the wrong position. Placenta previa means the placenta is near or above the interior orifice of the cervix, which faces the uterus. It appears with symptoms of vaginal bleeding particularly in the third trimester of pregnancy. Depending on its progression, bed rest or a caesarean section may be necessary.


Placental insufficiency is the medical term for a deficient supply of oxygen or nutrients to the unborn child through the placenta. The deficient supply can have various causes and can be detected by an ultrasound scan during prenatal check-ups. This deficient supply can lead to serious complications such as poor growth or the death of the unborn baby. Since treatment is not always possible, early delivery may be necessary to protect the mother and baby.


The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy. It supplies the unborn child with oxygen, nutrients and antibodies through the umbilical cord. The placenta largely keeps harmful substances, viruses and bacteria away from the child, and it gets rid of waste products. After a child is born, the placenta and the fetal membranes are also expelled from the body, which is called the afterbirth.


Pneumococcus is a bacteria that can cause serious illnesses such as middle ear infections, lung infections or meningitis. The bacteria spreads through talking, coughing and sneezing. This disease mainly affects children, the elderly and people with weak immune defenses. The Standing Commission on Vaccination recommends vaccination for these population groups. It is approved for use starting from two months of age, and it is the best possible protection against disease.


Preeclampsia is a form of gestosis, colloquially known as pregnancy poisoning. This disease manifests itself with high blood pressure, water retention and protein in the urine. The disease can occur during pregnancy after the 20th week of pregnancy and up to 6 weeks after delivery. The cause of this disease is not known and the consequences can be life-threatening for mother and child. The only possible therapy is ending the pregnancy early by performing an emergency caesarean section.


Progesterone is the medical term for a hormone that is involved in the female menstruation cycle and is important for maintaining a normal a pregnancy, among other things. This hormone, which is produced in the ovaries and placenta, ensures that the lining of the uterus grows, has a better blood supply and is thus prepared for pregnancy. During a pregnancy, the progesterone level increases, which is necessary for maintaining the pregnancy.


Prostaglandins are a group of hormone-like substances that are found throughout the human body and have many different functions. They are involved in pain, blood clotting and inflammation, among other things. Artificially produced prostaglandins are used for inducing labor as well as for terminating pregnancies.


A pudendal block, also called pudendal anesthesia, is a medical procedure performed during childbirth. It mainly leads to anesthesia of the vagina, perineum and pelvic floor. When a pudendal block is performed, an anesthetic is injected in the area of the ischial tuberosities. This anesthesia is usually administered when there is a risk of perineal tears during childbirth, when the delivery is aided by an episiotomy, or a vacuum extractor or forceps are used.


Pregnancy incontinence is the medical term for having a weak bladder during pregnancy. To facilitate the birth, the body produces more of a hormone that relaxes the tissues and muscles. The bladder and the pelvic floor also slacken. In combination with the pressure on the bladder by the unborn baby, it can lead to pregnancy incontinence. Pelvic floor exercises, dietary changes, exercise and sport can reduce pregnancy incontinence.


Prodromal contractions, commonly known as “false” labor, occurs especially during the last month of pregnancy. These irregular contractions are perceived as a tension or pain in the abdomen, and they cause the baby to slide deeper into the mother's pelvis. The mother’s abdomen lies a little lower than normal due to the these contractions. Prodromal contractions differ from Braxton Hicks contractions, which can start occurring already in the 20th week of pregnancy, and active contractions, which indicate the birth is imminent.


In medicine, the term probe is used to describe various instruments that are used to examine or treat areas of the body that are difficult to reach. For example, in a vaginal ultrasound, a ultrasound probe is placed inside the vagina during the scan.


Postpartum pads, also known as maternity pads, are sanitary pads that are designed to absorb wound secretions after childbirth. There is a wound at the site where the placenta was attached to the wall of the uterus. This wound and any injuries sustained during childbirth cause post-partum vaginal discharge, which can be absorbed by postpartum pads. The pads are worn like normal sanitary pads.


The period after childbirth is called the postpartum period. This period usually covers the first eight weeks after childbirth. In the postpartum period, the mother and baby learn to breastfeed and strengthen their bond. During this period, the uterus returns back to normal size and any injuries sustained during childbirth heal. This is a time for the mother and child to rest. They are often monitored by a midwife who visits them regularly.



A rupture of the membranes is when the amniotic sac opens. The amniotic sac consists of two membranes, and the sac surrounds the unborn baby and amniotic fluid. The membranes can rupture for different reasons. It can happen at birth after the onset of labor, or occur prematurely without the onset of labor. The amniotic sac can also be opened by a healthcare professional to induce labor.


Rickets is a bone disease that can affect children if the mother does not ingest enough vitamin D during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is therefore important to eat foods high in vitamin D during this time. These include fatty sea fish, edible mushrooms, eggs, butter and milk.


Rehabilitation funding providers are public bodies that bear the costs of rehabilitation following an accident, illness or disability. These include the statutory pension insurance, the statutory health insurance, the statutory accident insurance, the federal employment agency and the agencies responsible for integration assistance, public youth welfare and war victims' welfare. These bodies are also responsible for providing information and advice.


Restless legs syndrome is a medical term to describe an overpowering urge to move your legs. In addition to the need to move the legs, it often causes tension or a tingling, pulling or stinging sensation in the legs. These symptoms usually occur in resting situations such as in the evening or at night. Pregnant women are affected more often due to hormonal changes and iron deficiency. Restless legs syndrome is easily treatable with medication, supplements and exercise.


Rhesus (Rh) incompatibility occurs when the blood groups of two people are incompatible. The Rhesus factor is part of the blood group system, which is used to distinguish between the different blood types. Blood transfusions or pregnancy may cause this type of incompatibility. Complications may arise in rare cases of blood passing from the unborn child to the mother and it may be necessary to administer medication.


In biology, the rhesus factor is part of the blood group system, which is used to distinguish between the different blood groups. People with a positive Rh factor have special proteins in their red blood cells. People with a negative Rh factor do not. In pregnancy, this can be important, as the unborn child may have a different blood type than the mother, which can cause complications.


Rubella, also called German measles, is a contagious viral disease. This infectious disease causes swollen lymph nodes, fever, headache and rash. The virus spreads through talking, coughing and sneezing. Infection during pregnancy can lead to serious complications in the unborn child. Children and adults can be protected in the best possible way by getting vaccinated twice. Vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Commission on Vaccines starting from eleven months of age.



Spontaneous abortion is the medical term for miscarriage. Miscarriage, or pregnancy loss, is also recorded in the maternity record in addition to stillbirths and the year of previous pregnancies.


Membrane stripping, also called membrane sweeping, is the medical term for a procedure that induces childbirth. When membrane stripping is performed for inducing labor by a doctor or midwife, the lower part of the outer membrane of the amniotic sac, also known as the amniotic membrane, is detached from the cervix by hand. To do this, a finger is inserted and the inner cervix is massaged. This releases hormones and softens the cervix.


A small for date newborn describes a newborn that is born after the 38th week of pregnancy and is small in size or low in weight. The use of drugs, tobacco or alcohol during pregnancy or a mother’s illness can cause small for date newborns. However, most small for date newborns develop normally.


Sleep is divided into different sleep phases in medicine. The sleep stages of light sleep, deep sleep and dream sleep differ in terms of brain activity, heartbeat and cognition. The way newborns sleep is different from how adults sleep. Children are easier to wake up and the sleep phases are shorter overall. In newborns, the dream sleep phase comes before the deep sleep phase. It is twice as long in relation to the other phases as it is for adults.


In the maternity record, sediments refer to the levels detected in the urine. The levels of protein, sugar, nitrite and blood in the urine are measured and recorded in urine tests. Based on these readings, doctors can identify various possible conditions such as gestational diabetes, a bacterial infection, kidney disease or a urinary tract infection.


Skeletal abnormality is the medical term for all skeletal deformities, i.e. abnormal human bone structure. If a mother has any deformities that can have an influence on the birthing process, they are entered in the maternity record. For example, an expecting mother could have an unusually small pelvis.


Sonography is the medical term for an ultrasound examination. An ultrasound examination enables the visualization of body parts, tissues and organs. During prenatal check-ups, ultrasound scans provide images of the unborn baby. This examination can be used, for example, to detect deformities or abnormal developments in the baby.


Spinal anesthesia is a medical procedure used during childbirth or surgery. It numbs the spine below the injection point. Spinal anesthesia involves injecting an anesthetic directly into the nerve fluid where the nerves of the spine are located.


A spontaneous birth is a birth that was not induced by medication and was carried out without obstetric interventions such as a caesarean section, vacuum extractor or forceps.


The stool color chart is a tool for comparing a baby's stools to the colors of the different types of stools on the chart. The color of the stool, for example, can be used to identify various diseases. Especially in newborns, pale, colorless stools may indicate biliary disorders, which require rapid treatment.



Three-month colic, also known as baby colic, is a form of crampy abdominal pain that can occur in newborns between the second week of life and the fourth month of life. This pain is expressed by severe crying spells in otherwise healthy newborns. In many cases, however, it is not abdominal pain but other causes that trigger the crying. Visiting a crying clinic can help clarify the reasons for the crying.


The transverse lie position, i.e. when the unborn baby lies across the mother's spine, is an unfavorable position for birth. In the maternity record, the German abbreviation QL is used to indicate that the unborn child is lying in a transverse position in the mother's abdomen. The ideal position of the baby for birth is head down, facing the mother's spine. The unborn child still changes its position frequently up until the 36th week of pregnancy. However, giving birth in a different position is associated with risks.


Tetanus is a disease that can be caused by bacteria in open wounds and is often fatal. A vaccination against tetanus is part of the basic immunization program and is recommended by the German Standing Commission on Vaccination starting from two months of age. This vaccination must be renewed every 10 years thereafter.


Thrombosis is the medical term for a blood clot, which is a blockage inside a blood vessel. When thrombosis occurs in the heart, brain or lungs, there is acute danger to life. Thromboses in the legs or arms can cause pain, swelling and visible veins. Especially in the last months of pregnancy, there is an increased risk of thrombosis occurring in the abdomen, pelvis and legs. Thromboses can be treated with compression stockings, medication or surgery.


Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by parasites. Infection can be caused by eating uncooked meat products or unwashed fruits and vegetables, or by coming into contact with cat feces. Infection can be dangerous for immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. When an initial infection is detected during a pregnancy in a blood test or amniocentesis, the baby’s life is in danger and it can cause long-term medical problems.


Trimester is the medical term to describe one of the three phases a pregnancy is divided into. A nine-month pregnancy is divided into three equal periods of three months each. They are called the first, second and third trimesters. In each trimester, the baby realizes certain developmental milestones and certain prenatal tests are performed. Pregnancy symptoms may also differ in each trimester.



The uterine position refers to the distance between the pubic bone and the upper edge of the uterus. It is usually called fundal height in medicine. This measurement is recorded in the maternity record and can give medical professionals an indication of the week of pregnancy, uterine dilation and the growth of the unborn child.


Urinary incontinence, often called bladder weakness, is a condition in which sufferers lose their control of holding urine in. This may be due to accidents, age, pregnancy, spinal cord injury or disease. Urinary incontinence can be treated well in most cases with pelvic floor exercises, medication, weight loss or surgery.


An uncertain due date means that the week of pregnancy and thus the expected date of delivery cannot be determined with certainty. This may be the case if the mother does not know for sure the date of her last period or if the was pregnancy was detected late. The size and growth of the unborn baby is used in these cases to determine an approximate date.


Uterine surgery is the medical term for all surgeries performed on the uterus, or womb. These include cesarean section, curettage, sterilization and the removal of tumors. The information in the maternity passport is used by the medical staff to assess which risks could occur during pregnancy or birth.



The vocational training allowance is a form of financial assistance offered by the Federal Employment Agency. It supports people if they want to start a state-recognized training course but are unable to financially support themselves on their own.


Vernix caseosa, also called vernix or birthing custard, is the cheesy, waxy, white substance that babies are covered with at birth. This antibacterial layer protects the skin of the newborn during pregnancy and facilitates the birthing process. It is formed mainly from water and different fats. After birth, it protects the newborn from infections, cold and moisture loss.


Vacuum assisted delivery with a suction cup is used in obstetrics when the birth comes to a halt during the last phase of childbirth. In these cases, a suction cup is placed on the unborn baby’s head once it has already passed through the pelvic inlet. Then, the baby can be pulled through the birth canal with the help of negative pressure in the suction cup.


Vaginal sonography is the medical term for an ultrasound scan of the vagina. An ultrasound examination enables the visualization of body parts, tissues and organs. During a vaginal sonography, a long ultrasound device is inserted into the vagina. This allows doctors to examine the urethra, ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus. It is a preventive examination that can be used to detect a pregnancy and various diseases.


Varicosis is the medical term for varicose veins. Varicose veins are dilated blood vessels. These occur most often in the legs. The dilated blood vessels are caused by obesity, pregnancy or lack of exercise. Varicose veins can lead to water retention, skin changes and ulcers and can be treated with compression therapy or surgery.


Veganism is derived from the word vegan. Vegan is a term used to describe a diet without any animal products. This means not only giving up meat, but also eggs, dairy products, honey and other foods that are not made from plants or mushrooms. Veganism can also be a way of life that rejects any form of animal exploitation.


Vulvar varices is the medical term for varicose veins in the pubic area. Varicose veins are dilated blood vessels. Dilated blood vessels often occur due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. Vulvar varices do not pose a great danger and disappear after childbirth in most cases. As a preventive measure, pregnant women can put their legs up and try not to lie or sit for too long at a stretch.



Whooping cough is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract. This very contagious disease is passed on when coughing, sneezing and talking. Because of the danger to children, the German Standing Commission on Vaccination recommends repeated vaccination of infants and young children against whooping cough. Vaccination provides the best possible protection against disease.



X-rays are images, usually of parts of the body, that are taken with the help of X-radiation. X-radiation makes it possible to take images of bones, muscles, organs and other tissues. Taking x-rays on pregnant women is possible to a limited extent because of the radiation, which can potentially damage tissue.


Gelbes U-Heft

The yellow U-booklet or children's examination booklet is the booklet that parents receive from the maternity ward or midwife after childbirth. This booklet contains the results of all medical examinations performed in childhood, ranging from U1 to U9. The yellow U-booklet must be brought to every pediatric check-up. The U-booklet can be used by medical professionals to assess the development of the child's health.



Zygote is the technical biological term for a cell in which the genetic information of two individuals have been fused. In human reproduction, this is the egg fertilized by the sperm which contains the genetic information of both parents. Pregnancy begins when this fertilized egg nests in the uterus. Zygote is a stage in the development of the embryo.