Abdominal sonography is an ultrasound examination. It is performed during pregnancy to examine the uterus and the development of the foetus. Ultrasound provides a picture of the internal organs.
This is the transverse diameter of the foetus’s abdomen given in millimeters. On the basis of this value, medical professionals can track foetal development and detect abnormal developments. The term is often abbreviated as ATD.
Abuse is the medical term for misuse, overindulgence, or dependence. It refers to the abuse of stimulants, medicines and drugs. The maternity record has information about whether a pregnant woman regularly consumes cigarettes, alcohol, other drugs or medication. This information is important because it can have an effect on the pregnancy or the unborn child.
Acupuncture is a traditional treatment method in Chinese medicine. In this method, needles are inserted into certain points on the body and removed after a specific time. It is intended, for example, to relieve pain or treat other signs of illness.
Also know as an artificial rupture of membranes in English, an amniotomy is the medical term for an obstetric procedure in which the amniotic sac is opened. In this procedure, the healthcare professional inserts a small instrument through the open cervix to break the amniotic sac. This procedure may be performed in cases of particularly long pregnancies and births or if the baby is in critical condition.
Anaemia is the medical term to describe a lack of healthy red blood cells. Anaemia can cause paleness, poor concentration and dizziness in those affected and can make them more susceptible to infection. It is caused by a deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 or by internal or external bleeding. Anaemia is treated by administering iron, hormones or blood transfusions.
In medicine, the term ‘anamnesis interview’ is used to describe a conversation with a patient. Midwives, doctors or other medical personnel ask questions about a person’s history of illness or their lifestyle. In the context of midwifery care or prenatal check-ups, people are asked during anamnesis, for example, about previous pregnancies or whether they smoke, drink alcohol or take drugs.
Anti-D prophylaxis is a vaccination given to some pregnant people. It is administered when the unborn child has inherited a blood group from the father that is incompatible with the mother's blood group. This vaccination takes place once between the 28th and 30th week of pregnancy and once after birth. This vaccination can prevent serious complications.
Antihistamines are a number of drugs that have an anti-allergic effect. These drugs weaken the effect of the body's own messenger substance histamine. This messenger substance causes the allergic reaction, in which the body triggers a strong defensive reaction to certain substances such as pollen, house dust or animal hair.
In medicine, antibodies are special proteins in blood that belong to the immune system. Antibodies bind germs and other substances in the blood that can be dangerous to humans. Pathogens and other substances unknown to the body can trigger the increased production of antibodies as a defense mechanism.
The Apgar test is the first examination of the newborn. This test assesses the health of the newborn. The child's breathing, pulse, reflexes, appearance and movement are examined and scored from 1 to 10. This score is used to determine what care the child needs and whether they need to receive medical treatment.
An attending midwife is a midwife who works freelance in the maternity ward at a hospital. They have special contracts with individual hospitals for this purpose. A distinction is often made between an on-duty, attending midwife and a companion midwife. On-duty, attending midwives work together as a team and share the shifts in the delivery room. They attend all deliveries there and do not know most of the parents beforehand. A companion midwife does not work hospital shifts and only attends the births in the delivery room if accompanying a pregnant person whom they have already been taking care of during pregnancy.
A baby monitor is a device that transmits sounds or video images. It enables parents to hear when their baby starts crying in another room. This monitoring allows them to be away from the baby and still take action when the child needs them.
BAföG stands for Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz (German Federal Education and Training Assistance Act). This law establishes government aid for pupils and students. Children from lower-income families can apply for this social benefit in order to achieve diplomas and degrees such as Abitur, or bachelor or master of arts.
Balloon catheters are medical instruments that have a balloon attached to the end of a tube. In cases of induced labour, a balloon catheter with two balloons is filled with saline. They are positioned in front of and behind the cervix respectively. This procedure releases the body's own hormones, which can accelerate the childbirth process.
The term ‘breech presentation’ refers to a foetal position that is unfavorable for childbirth. In this position, the baby's head is at the top of the uterus and the feet or buttocks are at the bottom. Until the 36th week of pregnancy, it is not uncommon for the baby to be in this position, but giving birth in this position is associated with risks.
Benzodiazepines are prescription drugs which are used as sleep aids, sedatives, anxiety relievers and muscle relaxants. They work fast and can become addictive very quickly.
Bilirubin is a natural breakdown product of the red blood pigment. An elevated level of the yellowish substance in the blood can manifest itself as jaundice and indicate various diseases, including hepatitis, malaria or gallstones. Elevated bilirubin often occurs in newborns because the liver is not yet working properly.
Biotinidase deficiency is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. In this disease, the body can not properly process the vitamin biotin. Newborns are tested for this disease as part of newborn screening. It can be treated well with the administration of biotin, but can take a serious course if left untreated.
This is the diameter of the head of the unborn child in millimeters. On the basis of this value, medical personnel can follow the development of the unborn child and, if necessary, recognize abnormal developments. Medical personnel usually use the abbreviation BPD.
Baby colic, also known as infantile colic, is a form of crampy abdominal pain that can occur in newborns between the second week of life and the fourth month of life. This pain is expressed by severe crying spells in otherwise healthy newborns. In many cases, however, it is not abdominal pain but other causes that trigger the crying. Visiting what’s known in Germany as a ‘crying clinic’ can help clarify the reasons for the crying.
A birth center is a facility run by midwives where people give birth. Pregnant people are cared for at these centres exclusively by midwives. Doctors are not present at the birth in most cases. Delivery in a birth centre is only recommended for pregnancies which have not had any complications. Many birth centres are located near hospitals so that mother and baby can be transferred there in the event of an emergency.
Breast pumps are aids for pumping breast milk out of the breast by means of negative pressure. They are also called breast milk pumps or lactation pumps. If breastfeeding isn’t an option, this gives parents the option of feeding the baby expressed breast milk from a bottle. There are both mechanical and electronic breast pumps available.
Breast engorgement is the term used to describe blocked milk ducts and the failure of milk to drain completely during breastfeeding, which can lead to swelling and pain in the breast. In more severe cases, it can lead to a breast infection with fever, called mastitis. Milk engorgement can usually be prevented by changing the breastfeeding position, changing how the infant latches onto the breast, using warm compresses, resting and completely emptying the milk in the breast. Midwives and breastfeeding consultants can help with this.
Breast milk storage bags are special bags which can be used to store, freeze, transport or warm up expressed breast milk. They are usually made of plastic and should be used only once.
Braxton Hicks contractions are irregular contractions that can already begin occurring in the 20th week of pregnancy. These contractions are usually perceived as tension or a pulling sensation in the abdomen. During a Braxton Hicks contraction, the uterus contracts and relaxes again. It strengthens the muscles and improves the blood supply to the placenta and the foetus. Braxton Hicks contractions are different from pre-labour contractions, which only begin occurring in the 36th week of pregnancy, and from active labour contractions, which indicate the birth is imminent.
Bloody show is the term for light bleeding that occurs before the onset of childbirth. This bleeding occurs if the mucus plug, which closes the cervix during pregnancy, comes loose. The discharge may also be whitish. If this is the case, the discharge does not contain any blood. If bloody show does not occur along with contractions, it may still take a few days to deliver the baby.
In medicine, curettage is the surgical removal of the mucous membrane of the cervix or the mucous membrane of the entire uterus. This procedure is performed under general or local anesthesia and is used after miscarriages, for abortions, or to detect cancerous growths and inflammation.
Carnitine metabolic defects are very rare metabolic disorders. In this disease, the body can not produce enough carnitine. Newborns are tested for this disease during their second neonatal examination. This disease is treatable by administering carnitine or by following a certain diet. If left untreated, however, it can become serious.
The Coombs test is one of the maternity screening tests. In this test, the mother's blood is examined for compatibility with the unborn baby’s blood group. A negative result means that the blood groups are compatible. A positive result means that the blood groups are incompatible. If this is the case, it may be necessary to administer medications.
Covid-19 colloquially known as corona or covid, stands for Coronavirus Disease 2019 and is a highly contagious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The virus spreads through the air with droplets or as an aerosol when coughing, sneezing, talking, and in close contact with others. The most common signs of illness are dry cough, sore throat, runny nose, fever, and disturbances in the sense of taste and smell. Older, immunocompromised people with pre-existing conditions have a higher risk of contracting the disease and of having a more severe course of it once contracted. In more severe courses, inflammation of the lungs, meninges or brain, as well as diseases of the cardiovascular system, skin, liver or kidneys may occur. Long-term consequences with a wide variety of ailments are possible. Vaccination, along with keeping your distance from others, following hygiene rules, wearing an everyday mask, and ventilating rooms are the best possible protections against contracting the disease.
Cervical insufficiency is the medical term for cervical weakness. Cervical weakness occurs when the cervix shortens prematurely during pregnancy and it opens too early and becomes soft. It can be detected during a prenatal check-up and treated by various measures.
Cardiotocography is a technique used to monitor the foetal heartbeat and uterine contractions during pregnancy and labour. The device that is used is called a cardiotocograph. This device is also used to record the foetal heartbeat during the prenatal check-ups carried out in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. A common abbreviation is CTG. During childbirth, it is used to check the length, strength and frequency of contractions.
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the medical term for the tension or stretching of the carpal tunnel, where various nerves and tendons in the wrist pass through. This syndrome may be accompanied by pain, tingling or numbness in the fingers. Rest, medication or surgery can provide relief in most cases.
Cradle cap, also known as infantile seborrheic dermatitis, is a white, yellowish or brown colored rash that develops in the first few days of life and usually disappears on its own by a baby’s first birthday. There is no medical reason to remove this harmless rash. Cradle cap should not be confused with itchy infantile eczema. Cradle cap is an inflammation that can occur from about the third month of life and may require treatment if it spreads.
The child’s age in months is calculated from their date of birth until one day before the day with the same number in the following month. It therefore does not correspond to a calendar month, but is a four-week period counted from the child's date of birth. It is particularly important for calculating the parental allowance (Elterngeld) to which parents are entitled. Parental allowance is paid according to months of life, which is why you should also plan your parental leave according to this counting method and not according to calendar months.
The cervical cap, also called a contraceptive cap or FemCap, is a contraceptive device made of hard rubber, plastic or latex. It is inserted into the vagina and placed in front of the cervix. A gel is also applied that inhibits the mobility of sperm. The cervical cap can be inserted hours before sexual intercourse and should not be removed until 6-8 hours afterwards. Sperm can survive that long. It must be adjusted by healthcare professionals before the first time it is used.
The cranial position is when the baby is positioned head-down in the womb. 95 percent of babies are born in this position. The ideal position for childbirth is when the baby is in the cranial position and is also facing the mother's spine.
The crown-rump length is the length of the foetus measured from the top of the head to the rump or buttocks. On the basis of this value, medical professionals can follow the foetal development and, if necessary, detect abnormalities. The German abbreviation SSL is used for the crown-rump length in the maternity record (Mutterpass).
In Germany, a crying clinic is a place for parents to bring babies who cry a lot or have problems falling asleep or sleeping through the night, or whose babies have feeding problems. At crying clinics, doctors, midwives, psychologists or physiotherapists examine the baby as well as the relationship between the parents and baby. Families get help and the children get medical treatment if needed.
Caesarean section, also called a C-section, is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby. During a caesarean section, the abdominal wall and the uterus are opened through an incision and the baby is delivered through this opening. There are different reasons for performing a caesarean section and a distinction is made between a planned and emergency C-section. A planned Caesarean section is performed at the request of the parents or based on a physician's assessment prior to the actual start of labor. An emergency C-section is performed when the birth has already begun and complications arise during delivery.
Custody and parental care are legal terms from German family law. Parental care includes, among other things, the duties and rights related to the care, upbringing and supervision of a child. These duties and rights are expected to be exercised and fulfilled in particular by the natural parents. In cases of unmarried couples, the mother initially receives custody. Through the mother's consent, the father can also obtain custody, provided he completes a paternity recognition (Vaterschaftsanerkennung), a declaration of custody (Sorgeerklärung), or an adoption. If custody is withdrawn or if the natural parents are still under 18 years of age, a guardian is appointed for the child.
Carrying consultants are trained at special babywearing schools and advise people on the correct way to carry babies. Many parents develop back pain from carrying their baby due to poor posture. During carrying consultations, they learn how to choose the right baby carriers and how to use them correctly.
Colostrum is the breast milk produced during the first two to five days after giving birth. This breast milk has a yellowish tint, is thicker than regular breast milk and contains an especially high level of nutrients. Colostrum is easily digestible and has a high concentration of important ingredients, making it perfectly suited to the needs of newborns. Although babies can only drink small amounts directly after birth, they get all the nutrients they need from the colostrum.
Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral disease. It usually occurs in early childhood. Kindergarten and school children up to the age of 10 are particularly affected. However, unprotected adolescents or adults can also become infected. This disease leads to fatigue, fever and an itchy rash all over the body. The virus spreads through talking, coughing, sneezing and direct skin contact. Once the disease is over, the virus remains in the body and can lead to shingles years later with blisters that are also contagious. In rare cases, a foetus can also be infected via the placenta. This can put the pregnancy in great danger. Vaccination, which is recommended from the age of eleven months, provides the best possible protection for children and adults.
The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. All perceptions, all thinking, feeling, remembering and all conscious movements of human beings are controlled, processed and passed on by means of this system. The central nervous system is often abbreviated as CNS.
The DHM + V rules include keeping your distance from others, observing hygiene rules, wearing an everyday mask and ventilating rooms. This rule helps curb the spread of infectious diseases.
DHM, known in German as ‘AHA Rules’, encourages keeping your distance from others, observing hygiene rules and wearing an everyday mask to curb the spread of illnesses. In practice, this means keeping at least 1.5 metres away from other people, sneezing into the crook of your arm, washing your hands regularly and wearing a protective mouth/nose mask in everyday life. This rule helps curb the spread of infectious diseases.
Diabetes mellitus is the medical term for diabetes. This is a metabolic disease in which blood glucose levels are permanently elevated, which can affect organ function. Diabetes produces symptoms such as severe thirst, frequent urination, weakness and fatigue. The disease can be well treated by insulin therapy, physical activity and making dietary changes.
A diaphragm is a contraceptive device made out of silicone or latex. It is inserted into the vagina and placed in front of the cervix. A gel is also applied that inhibits the mobility of sperm. A diaphragm can be inserted hours before intercourse and should not be removed until a few hours after sex. It must be adjusted by a healthcare professional in a doctor's office or counseling center before the first time it is used.
Diphtheria is an infectious disease that used to be more common, especially in children. The bacteria that cause this disease spread through coughing, sneezing and talking, and the disease affects the respiratory tract and tonsils. People can be protected best from infection by getting vaccinated, which is already recommended for small children by the German Standing Commission on Vaccination.
The delivery room is the room in a hospital or birth centre where babies are born. Depending on the institution, the staff working in a delivery room can include midwives, doctors and obstetricians.
The education package is a set of benefits for which low-income families with children can apply. In German, these benefits are called the ‘Bildungspaket’; they are also known as ‘Leistungen für Bildung und Teilhabe’ (‘benefits for education and participation’). The prerequisite for this type of support is that the person must be a recipient of the Unemployment Benefit II (Arbeitslosengeld II), social benefits, social assistance (Sozialhilfe), housing benefits, or the child benefits (Kindergeld). The funding covers school excursions, school trips, transportation to school, learning support and lunch.
An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg does not implant in the uterus and instead implants itself in the fallopian tube. An ectopic pregnancy cannot be carried to term. It often leads to a natural termination of pregnancy. If this does not happen, serious complications can occur. Irregular bleeding despite a positive pregnancy test may indicate an ectopic pregnancy.
Eclampsia is a form of gestosis, which is sometimes referred to as pregnancy poisoning. The symptoms of this disease include high blood pressure, water retention, protein in the urine and seizures. The disease can occur after the 20th week of pregnancy and up to 6 weeks after delivery. The cause of this disease is not known and the consequences can be life-threatening for mother and child.
An embryo is a fertilised egg that has already formed an amniotic sac. This is the case about ten to twelve days after the egg is fertilised. The term foetus is used once the organs have formed, usually around the tenth week of pregnancy.
In medicine, an epicrisis is the final assessment of a case of illness. This assessment records the history, medical findings, course of the illness and the treatment measures taken. Information about the progression of the pregnancy, the first examinations of the newborn, and check-ups during the postpartum period are summarised in the maternity record (Mutterpass) under epicrisis.
The estimated due date, abbreviated as ED, is the date when a pregnant person is most likely to give birth. The different calculation methods usually use the first day of the last period or the date of conception for the calculation. Around 80 percent of children are born in the ten days before or after the estimated due date. The date can also be recalculated and adjusted during pregnancy.
An extrauterine pregnancy is when the fertilized egg does not implant in the uterus. An extrauterine pregnancy usually can not be carried to term. This often leads to a natural termination of pregnancy. If this does not happen, serious complications can occur.
An epidural anaesthesia (EA) is a medical procedure used during childbirth or other surgeries. It causes numbing of the spinal cord nerves below the puncture point. EA involves inserting a hollow needle directly into the epidural space of the spinal column, where the pain-transmitting nerve fibers are located. The administration of strong analgesics eliminates the sensation of pain from the injection site downward.
Excessive crying is when a baby cries for more than three hours a day, more than three days a week, for more than three weeks. In most cases, there is no identifiable disease. Babies find it difficult to process many stimuli due to high sensitivity. So they are simply overwhelmed by these stimuli.
First trimester screening is a voluntary examination carried out between the 10th and 14th week of pregnancy as part of the recommended prenatal check-ups. During this examination, an ultrasound and the mother's blood levels are used to assess the risk of deformities or abnormal developments in the child.
A fistula is a tube-shaped cavity. In the body, a fistula connects internal organs with the skin surface or different organs with each other. Fistulas become problematic when they become inflamed and pus develops. Fistulas are easily treatable with antibiotics or surgery.
Folic acid, often called vitamin B9 or vitamin B11, is a water-soluble vitamin. It plays an important role in metabolism, blood formation and in the development of the fetus. Folic acid is found mainly in vegetables and legumes. Since most adults do not consume enough folic acid, pregnant people and people who wish to conceive are recommended to take synthetically produced folic acid as a dietary supplement.
In medicine, the areas of the newborn's head where the bones have not grown together yet are called fontanels. The large fontanel is located at the center of the head. Smaller fontanels are located at the back of the head and at the temples. The fontanels allow the head to change shape during childbirth. The fontanels close by the age of three. They should be specially protected until then.
In biology, the term foetus describes the developmental stage in mammals at which all organs have been formed. In humans, this happens around the tenth week of pregnancy. The development of the foetus ends with birth. Before the internal organs are formed, the term embryo is used.
In medicine, the term fundus refers to the base or edge of an organ. The height of the fundus, also known as fundal height, is the distance between the upper edge of the uterus to the pubic bone, ribs and navel. These values are noted down in the maternity record (Mutterpass). They can give medical professionals an indication of uterine dilation, the growth of the fetus and uterine involution, which is when the uterus returns to its former size.
The fetal position is the position of the foetus in the womb. Babies often move around in the womb until the 36th week of pregnancy. The ideal position for birth is when the head is pointed downwards facing the mother's spine. Giving birth in a different position is associated with risks.
Fecal incontinence is a condition in which sufferers lose control of their bowel movements. It may be due to certain medications, age, weight, constipation, diabetes or other diseases, or as a result of childbirth. Fecal incontinence can be treated well in most cases with dietary changes, pelvic floor muscle training, medications, weight loss or surgery.
Genetic diseases are hereditary diseases that can be inherited within families. This does not mean that these diseases necessarily occur in every generation. They only occur with certain combinations involving parental hereditary diseases.
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that only occurs during pregnancy. Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which blood glucose levels are permanently elevated, which can affect organ function. Gestational diabetes, which is found in four out of ten pregnancies, is usually temporary.
Gravida is the medical term for pregnancy. Accordingly, the number of pregnancies a person has had is entered in the gravida field in the maternity record (Mutterpass). This includes pregnancies that ended in miscarriage and other pregnancies that were not carried to term for various reasons.
Gravidogram is derived from the term gravida, which is the medical term for pregnancy. A gravidogram records all the important measurements taken during the prenatal check-ups conducted over the course the pregnancy. They give health professionals an overview of the development of the pregnancy.
The Guthrie test is a blood test performed on newborns. The test can detect metabolic diseases. The Guthrie test is rarely performed today. Instead, new testing methods are being used that can more accurately identify many more metabolic diseases.
A guardian is a person who has guardianship over a minor, which means the guardian is legally responsible for a child or adolescent. Guardianship is a legal term defined in the German Civil Code. Like parents, a guardian has duties and rights to care for, educate, supervise, and determine the whereabouts of the child, or to have these duties performed by others.
In biology, haemoglobin is the blood pigment of the red blood cells. Haemoglobin binds to and transports oxygen and carbon within the body. When the haemoglobin value is too low or too high in the blood, it can be a sign of various diseases.
A home birth is childbirth in a private home. It is an alternative to giving birth in a hospital or birth centre. In a home birth, the pregnant person is usually cared for by a midwife in their own home. This type of birth is not suitable for high-risk pregnancies.
hCG stands for human chorionic gonadotropin. It is a hormone that is found in the blood. The level of hCG increases when a person is pregnant. It is important for the implantation of the egg and for the production of the hormone progesterone, which also plays an important role in pregnancy.
Hepatitis is a viral disease of the liver. Transmission most commonly occurs through contaminated food, sexual or blood contact, or at birth from mother to child. This disease is usually acute, but it can also become chronic. In a chronic course, the liver can suffer life-threatening damage. Pregnant people are tested for hepatitis during their prenatal check-ups.
Hepatitis B is a viral disease of the liver. Transmission most often occurs through sexual or blood contact or at birth from mother to child. This disease is usually acute, but it can also become chronic. In a chronic course, the liver can suffer life-threatening damage. Pregnant people are tested for hepatitis B during their prenatal check-ups.
Herpes is a widespread viral disease that can trigger various illnesses in a weakened immune system. The virus is transmitted mainly through saliva or skin contact during an acute infection. After infection, this virus remains in the body for life. Labial and genital herpes are the most common diseases of this type. During pregnancy, acute infection with genital herpes can pose risks to the foetus.
Hib stands for the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type b. This bacteria can cause various respiratory diseases, meningitis, inflammation of the heart muscle or blood poisoning. Since this bacteria mainly affect young children, they are vaccinated against Hib several times during the first year of life. This vaccination is part of the basic immunisation schedule and offers the best possible protection against disease.
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. This virus attacks the body's defenses and thereby weakens the body. The most common routes of transmission are sexual contact and contact with blood (e.g. blood transfusions or drug use without protective measures). Without treatment, the human immune system can no longer fight viruses, fungi or bacteria. As a result, these pathogens can cause life-threatening diseases. This immune deficiency is called AIDS, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome. With lifelong medication, this viral disease is now readily treatable.
HPV stands for human papillomavirus. These viruses are the most commonly transmitted viruses during intimate skin contact, meaning they are not only transmitted during sexual intercourse. There are many different types of human papillomaviruses. Infection with certain types of viruses can lead to the formation of warts or cancer. In women, these virus types are the second most common cause of cervical cancer. The Standing Commission on Vaccination therefore advises all minors to be vaccinated against it at an early stage and before they first have sexual contact. In addition, regular check-ups with a gynaecologist or urologist are recommended for adults.
Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. High blood pressure can have several causes. Being overweight, drinking too much alcohol, consuming too much salt, and not getting enough exercise can all contribute to high blood pressure. If blood pressure is permanently elevated, it can lead to strokes, heart attacks or kidney damage.
Hypoallergenic baby formula, also called HA nutrition (HA-Nahrung), and hypoallergenic baby food are special forms of nourishment that cause fewer allergic reactions. The proteins of the cow's milk found in these products are split in such a way that the baby's immune system does not perceive them as foreign substances. It was developed for babies who cannot be breastfed and have an increased risk of allergies. Babies should always be fed HA nutrition in consultation with paediatricians.
Hypotension is the medical term for low blood pressure. Low blood pressure can have various causes. Pregnancy, a low-salt diet, not consuming enough fluids, and being underweight can lead to low blood pressure. Low blood pressure is only treated when symptoms are severe and treatment does not pose a danger to those affected.
Induced abortion ends a pregnancy with medication or a medical procedure. The year of previous pregnancies and, if applicable, the method used to terminate the pregnancies are recorded in the maternity record.
An informal application means submitting a letter instead of a form when making a request. Many applications or written contacts with authorities, offices, banks or workplaces do not require forms. An informal application requires the address of the recipient, the address of the sender, a subject line, a signature, the city and date.
The indirect Coombs test or ICT is one of the prenatal screening tests conducted during pregnancy. In this test, the pregnant person’s blood is examined for compatibility with the foetus’s blood type. A positive result means that the pregnant person’s blood type and the blood type of the foetus are not compatible. If this is the case, the pregnant person can receive rhesus factor antibodies as a preventive measure.
An incubator is a special enclosed crib used to maintain environmental conditions suitable for newborn babies. It can be used for premature babies. The infant is placed in it after delivery. The temperature and humidity in the incubator are adjusted to ensure the survival of the premature baby as best as possible.
Infant formula is the name given to a range of products suitable for feeding infants as a substitute for breast milk, particularly during the first six months of life. Infant formulas are made with a cow, goat or soy protein base. For babies at risk of allergies, there is also a hypoallergenic infant formula produced on the basis of split proteins.
Infertility treatment is the medical term for treatments that can have a positive effect on the possibility of pregnancy for people who want to have children. It includes hormone treatments and determining the optimal time for fertilisation. Infertility treatments also include procedures to transfer sperm into the cervix, uterus or fallopian tube, or artificial insemination of an egg outside the body. These types of treatments are recorded in the maternity record (Mutterpass). These pregnancies are considered high-risk pregnancies and are monitored very closely.
Kangaroo care, also called skin-to-skin contact, is when premature babies are placed on their mother's or father's chest. Through the warmth, skin contact, smell and voice of the parent, premature babies develop better, become calmer and develop a bond with their parents.
Lanugo hair is the term used to describe the delicate fuzz of hair on unborn babies. This is mostly shed by the time of birth. In womb, this hair causes the custard-like vernix caseosa to stick. The vernix caseosa helps ensure that the baby's skin is protected from being softened by the amniotic fluid and from sound, pressure and vibration.
LCHAD deficiency stands for long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. LCHAD deficiency is a rare, inherited metabolic disease. It can cause hypoglycemia, cardiac arrhythmias and organ failure. Newborns are examined for this deficiency and other metabolic diseases during the newborn screening three days after birth.
Linea nigra is the medical term for the dark line that often runs from a pregnant person’s belly button or chest down to their pubic bone. The reason for this natural discoloration in about 75 percent of pregnant people is the increased production of the hormone melanin, which is also responsible for tanning the skin.
A lactation consultant offers advice on how to breastfeed a baby properly and how to put the baby to the breast properly for drinking. Sore nipples, milk engorgement, or inflamed breasts can all develop due to improper latch-on and breastfeeding. One cause is often that the baby latches on to the breast incorrectly. Breastfeeding counselling helps with holding the baby and guiding the infant to the breast correctly.
Lochioschesis is a condition where the lochia, or the postpartum vaginal discharge, is retained the uterine cavity. The postpartum flow of this discharge is part of the body’s natural reaction after childbirth. This mainly drains the blood from the wound caused by the detachment of the placenta. If the postpartum vaginal discharge suddenly stops or decreases significantly, or if you experience abdominal pain or fever, you may have lochioschesis. Lochioschesis can lead to infection, but it is easily treatable.
A positional anomaly occurs when the foetus is in an unfavorable position in the uterus for childbirth. This means that the baby’s head is not at the bottom of the uterus, facing the spine. Until the 36th week of pregnancy, this is not uncommon, but giving birth when the baby is in an unusual position is associated with risks.
Membrane sweeping is the medical term for a procedure that induces childbirth. When a doctor or midwife performs membrane sweeping to induce labour, the lower part of the outer membrane of the amniotic sac, also known as the amniotic membrane, is detached from the cervix by hand. To do this, a finger is inserted and the inner cervix is massaged. This releases hormones and softens the cervix.
Meconium is the name given to the newborn's first bowel movement. 12 to 48 hours after birth, the newborn excretes this black stool. In some cases, the baby has already excreted it in the mother's womb prior to birth. If this is the case, it may be necessary for medical measures to be taken immediately after birth. You should contact a paediatrician's office if the baby has still not passed the meconium more than 48 hours after birth.
Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. It leads to inflammation of the respiratory tract, pink eye, and later to a rash all over the body. The virus spreads through talking, coughing, sneezing and direct skin contact. Vaccination can provide the best possible protection for children and adults. It is recommended starting from twelve months of age.
MCAD deficiency stands for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. MCAD deficiency is a rare, inherited metabolic disease. It can cause hypoglycemia, seizures and coma. Newborns are examined for this deficiency and other metabolic diseases during the newborn screening three days after birth.
Meningococcus C stands for meningococcus bacteria type C. This bacteria can cause meningitis or blood poisoning. About one in ten people are carriers of this kind of bacteria, which can spread through talking, coughing and sneezing. This disease mainly affects children, adolescents and people with a weak immune system. The German Standing Commission on Vaccination recommends vaccination for these population groups, which is permitted starting at two years old. Vaccination is the best possible protection against the disease.
Midstream urine is the urine that comes out of the urethra after the beginning and before the end of urination. It is required for urine samples because the urine at the beginning of urination is contaminated with germs from the urethra or external genital organs.
Mumps is a contagious viral disease. This infectious disease affects the parotid glands and other organs. The virus spreads through talking, coughing, sneezing and direct skin contact. The best possible protection for children and adults is getting vaccinated twice. It is recommended by the German Standing Commission on Vaccination starting from fourteenth months of age.
Maternity guidelines regulate the medical care that pregnant people should receive before and after giving birth. They are determined by the experts of the Joint Federal Committee. This committee decides the point in time and content of the examinations, tests, consultations, actions, records and certificates relevant to pregnant people, which are performed or issued by doctors and midwives.
Maternity leave periods are covered under the Maternity Protection Act (Mutterschutzgesetz); they regulate employment options before and after childbirth. In general, maternity leave lasts six weeks before and eight weeks after the birth. Pregnant people may object to the pre-natal restriction on employment (Beschäftigungsverbot) and continue to work at their own request. The restriction on employment after birth cannot be violated. Under certain circumstances, such as premature or multiple births, maternity leave may be extended to a total of 18 weeks.
The Maternity Protection Act regulates the protection of health for employees, students and trainees before, during and after childbirth. This law stipulates restrictions on employment (Beschäftigungsverbot), protection against dismissal, compensation benefits and the risk assessment of the workplace of female employees during pregnancy, after childbirth and during the breastfeeding period.
Newborn screenings are examinations of newborns performed between 36 and 72 hours after birth. During this examination, the newborn's blood is tested for certain metabolic and hormonal disorders. The goal of newborn screening is to detect and treat congenital conditions before symptoms develop.
The neural tube is the technical term for the rudiments of the nervous system during foetal development. In humans, the neural tube develops between the 19th and 28th day of gestation. The brain and spinal cord later develop from the neural tube.
Nipple shields are latex or silicone products designed to mimic a human nipple. Some people use them when breastfeeding. They are placed over the nipple and are used especially when breastfeeding results in problems and sore nipples.
A nursing cover is a large cloth that provides privacy while breastfeeding in public. It protects the chest area from glances and helps the baby not get distracted by the environment.
Obesity is the medical term for describing the condition of being severely overweight. Obesity is when a person's excess weight takes on a form that results in various health problems and a reduced quality of life. Good nutrition and sufficient exercise can prevent or reduce obesity.
An outpatient birth refers to a birth in a hospital or birth center, after which the mother goes home with the baby after only four to six hours. This is possible if the mother did not have any complications during childbirth and if it can be ensured that the mother and child will be cared for at home.
Oedema is the medical term for an accumulation of fluid under the skin that causes swelling or a lump. Oedema usually indicates a disease affecting the kidneys, liver or heart, or it is an indication of inflammation, allergies, drug intolerance or low iron in the blood. Oedema is easily treated with medications that stimulate urine production in the kidneys.
Oligohydramnios is the medical term for a lack of amniotic fluid, which can have various causes. During ultrasound scans, an unusually small uterus may indicate a lack of amniotic fluid. In many cases, it can help for the pregnant person to increase the amount they drink. In more severe cases, a solution of sugar and saline is injected into the amniotic sac or delivery is expedited.
Omega-3 fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids. Unlike saturated fatty acids, they cannot be produced by the body. These fatty acids are found in particular in fatty fish and some vegetable oils. They have a positive effect on metabolism, heart function, vision, brain function and pregnancy. During pregnancy and breastfeeding, omega-3 fatty acids contribute to the normal development of the child’s brain and vision.
Osteopathic treatments are classified as a form of alternative and holistic medicine. Osteopathic treatment is mainly carried out by means of making certain hand movements on bones and muscles. It is said that through these hand movements different disease patterns can allegedly be treated.
Oestrogen is the generic medical term for different sex hormones. Oestrogens are found in all humans, but they play a particularly important role in the female body. They are produced in the ovaries, testes, adrenal cortex and placenta. Among other things, they have an influence on the menstruation cycle, breast growth, and metabolism.
Oxytocin is a hormone that plays an important role in childbirth, among other things, and it is sometimes known as a ‘love hormone’. During childbirth, labour is induced when oxytocin is released or it is administered in the form of medication. Oxytocin also has an effect on breastfeeding, stress regulation, sexuality, and social bonding.
Polyhydramnios is an amniotic fluid disorder. Polyhydramnios is a rare abnormal condition during pregnancy in which the amount of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac is increased. This pathological condition can have various causes and lead to complications. Treatment is possible by performing a medical procedure in which some of the amniotic fluid is drained.
Potassium is a vital mineral that has many different functions in the body. Potassium is found in almost all types of food. Various diseases can lead to a potassium level in the blood that is too low or too high. This can have various negative effects. Too much or too little potassium in the blood can be treated well by taking medication or changing your diet.
Polio, short for poliomyelitis, is an infectious disease caused by a viral infection. The disease is spread by coming into contact with urine or stool, or when talking, coughing and sneezing. Polio mainly affects children between the ages of three and eight. The polio vaccine is licensed for use in newborns starting from two months of age. It is recommended by the German Standing Committee on Vaccination and offers the best possible protection for children and adults.
Post partum complications include all complications that can occur after childbirth. These complications can have a wide variety of causes. Examples of complications after childbirth include postpartum depression, infections, inflammation or excessive postpartum bleeding.
Public certification is a prerequisite for the validity of certain legal agreements, declarations, deeds and contracts in special cases. This authentication is carried out by a notary or another authorised person. Certain agreements, declarations, documents or contracts only acquire their validity through this written form and the signature by the properly authorised person. Examples of documents which must be authenticated are custody declarations, marriage contracts or wills.
Para is short for parity. In medicine, parity is the number of births. Accordingly, ‘para 1’ or the term ‘primipara’ means a person has previously given birth.
Periodontal disease, often called gum disease, is an inflammation of the tooth bed triggered by bacteria. Gum disease usually begins with gum inflammation, which is caused by bacteria in dental plaque. As a result, the gums and the bones behind them recede. They can potentially lead to painful gums, gums that bleed easily, wobbly teeth and tooth loss.
Percentile charts are benchmarks for making a comparison. With the help of these percentiles, deviations in a child’s growth from the average can be detected. A baby's height and weight are measured regularly as part of childhood check-ups to determine the baby’s growth curve. The percentile curves in the yellow U-Check-Up booklet help doctors and midwives determine whether a baby is developing normally for its age.
Phototherapy, often called light therapy, is a medical treatment using light. This form of therapy is used for newborns when they have neonatal jaundice. The special light can convert the excess bilirubin in the child's blood so that it can be excreted by the kidneys. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of the red blood pigment and causes the yellow discoloration of the baby's skin.
Placenta praevia is the medical term for a malposition of the placenta. Placenta previa means the placenta is near or above the interior orifice of the cervix, which faces the uterus. It appears with symptoms of vaginal bleeding particularly in the third trimester of pregnancy. Depending on its progression, bed rest or a caesarean section may be necessary.
Placental insufficiency is the medical term for an undersupply of oxygen or nutrients to the foetus via the placenta. The deficient supply can have various causes and can be detected by an ultrasound scan during prenatal check-ups. This undersupply can lead to serious complications such as insufficient growth or even death of the foetus. Since treatment is not always possible, early delivery may be necessary to protect the pregnant person and the pregnancy.
The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy. It supplies the foetus with oxygen, nutrients and antibodies through the umbilical cord. The placenta keeps most of the pollutants, viruses and bacteria away from the foetus and contributes to the disposal of waste products. After a baby is born, the placenta and the foetal membranes are also expelled from the body, which is called the afterbirth.
Pneumococcus is a bacteria that can cause serious illnesses such as middle ear infections, lung infections or meningitis. The bacteria spreads through talking, coughing and sneezing. This disease mainly affects children, the elderly and people with weak immune defenses. The Standing Commission on Vaccination recommends vaccination for these population groups. It is approved for use starting from two months of age, and it is the best possible protection against disease.
Preeclampsia is a form of gestosis, colloquially known as pregnancy poisoning. This disease manifests with high blood pressure, water retention and protein in the urine. The disease can occur after the 20th week of pregnancy and up to 6 weeks after delivery. The cause of this disease is not known and the consequences can be life-threatening for mother and child. The only possible therapy is ending the pregnancy early by performing an emergency caesarean section.
Progesterone is a hormone involved in the menstruation cycle and is important for maintaining a normal a pregnancy, among other things. This hormone, which is produced in the ovaries and placenta, ensures that the lining of the uterus grows, has a good blood supply and is thus prepared for pregnancy. During a pregnancy, progesterone levels increase, which is necessary for maintaining the pregnancy.
Prostaglandins are a group of hormone-like substances that are found throughout the human body and have many different functions. They are involved in pain perception, blood clotting, and inflammation, among other things. Artificially produced prostaglandins are used for inducing labour as well as for terminating pregnancies.
A pudendal nerve block, also called a saddle nerve block, is a medical procedure performed during childbirth. It mainly leads to numbing of the vagina, perineum and pelvic floor. When a pudendal block is performed, an anaesthetic is injected in the area of the ischium. This anaesthesia is usually administered if there is a risk of perineal tears during childbirth, if the delivery is aided by an episiotomy, or if a vacuum extractor or forceps are used.
Pregnancy incontinence is the medical term for having a weak bladder during pregnancy. To facilitate the birth, the body produces more of a hormone that relaxes the body’s tissues and muscles. The bladder and the pelvic floor also slacken. What’s more, the developing foetus also presses on the bladder, leading to pregnancy incontinence. Pelvic floor exercises, dietary changes, exercise and sport can reduce pregnancy incontinence.
Pre-labor, commonly and incorrectly known as ‘false’ labour in English, occurs especially during the last month of pregnancy. Pre-labour contractions occur irregularly and manifest as a tension or pulling pain in the abdomen and also aim to make the baby slide deeper into the mother's pelvis. As a further consequence, the whole abdomen sits a little lower. Pre-labour contractions differ significantly from Braxton Hicks contractions, which can occur as early as 20 weeks into pregnancy, and labour contractions, which herald the imminent birth.
In medicine, the term probe is used to describe various instruments that are used to examine or treat areas of the body that are difficult to reach. For example, in a vaginal ultrasound, a ultrasound probe is placed inside the vagina during the scan.
Postpartum pads, also known as maternity pads, are sanitary pads that are designed to absorb wound secretions after childbirth. As the placenta is expelled shortly after birth, it leaves a wound inside the uterus. This wound and any injuries sustained during childbirth cause post-partum vaginal discharge, which can be absorbed by postpartum pads. The pads are worn like normal sanitary pads.
The period after childbirth is called the postpartum period. This period usually covers the first eight weeks after childbirth. In the postpartum period, the mother and baby learn to breastfeed and strengthen their bond. During this period, the uterus returns back to its normal size and any injuries sustained during childbirth heal. This is a time for the mother and child to rest. They are often monitored by a midwife who visits them regularly.
A rupture of the membranes is when the amniotic sac opens. The amniotic sac consists of two membranes, and the sac surrounds the foetus and amniotic fluid. The membranes can rupture for different reasons. It can happen at birth after the onset of labour, or occur prematurely without the onset of labour. The amniotic sac can also be opened by a healthcare professional to induce labor.
Rickets is a bone disease that can affect children if the mother does not consume enough vitamin D during pregnancy or breastfeeding. It is therefore important to eat foods high in vitamin D during this time. These include fatty sea fish, edible mushrooms, eggs, butter and milk.
Rehabilitation funding providers are public bodies that bear the costs of rehabilitation following an accident, illness or disability. These include the statutory pension insurance, the statutory health insurance, the statutory accident insurance, the Federal Employment Agency and the agencies responsible for integration assistance, public youth welfare and war victims' welfare. These bodies are also responsible for providing information and advice.
Restless legs syndrome is a condition that can affect some people during pregnancy. In addition to the need to move the legs, this syndrome often includes discomfort such as tension, tingling, pulling or stinging in the legs. These symptoms usually occur in restful situations such as when lying still and when trying to sleep at night. Pregnant people are affected more often due to hormonal changes and iron deficiency. Restless legs syndrome is easily treatable with medication, supplements and exercise.
Rhesus (Rh) incompatibility occurs when the blood groups of two people are incompatible. The Rhesus factor is part of the blood group system, which is used to distinguish between the different blood types. Blood transfusions or pregnancy may cause this type of incompatibility. In the rare case of blood from the foetus passing to the mother, complications may arise and the administration of medication may be necessary.
In biology, the rhesus factor is part of the blood group system, which is used to distinguish between the different blood groups. Special proteins are found on the red blood cells of people with a positive Rh factor. This is not the case in people with negative rhesus factor. In pregnancy, this can be important, as the foetus may have a different blood type than the mother, which can cause complications.
Rubella, also called German measles, is a contagious viral disease. This infectious disease causes swollen lymph nodes, fever, headache and rash. The virus spreads through talking, coughing and sneezing. Infection during pregnancy can lead to serious complications for the foetus. The best possible protection for children and adults is getting vaccinated twice. Vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Commission on Vaccines starting from eleven months of age.
Spontaneous abortion is the medical term for miscarriage. Miscarriage, or pregnancy loss, is also recorded in the maternity record in addition to stillbirths and the year of previous pregnancies.
A small for gestational age newborn describes a newborn that is born after the 38th week of pregnancy and is small in size or low in weight. The use of drugs, tobacco or alcohol during pregnancy or a illness during pregnancy can cause small for gestational age newborns. However, most small for gestational age newborns develop normally.
Shoulder presentation, i.e. when the baby lies across the mother's spine while in the womb, is an unfavourable position for birth. The German abbreviation ‘QL’ is used In the maternity record (Mutterpass) to indicate that the baby is lying in a shoulder presentation in the womb. The ideal position of the baby for birth is head down, facing the mother's spine. The baby still changes its position frequently up until the 36th week of pregnancy. However, giving birth in a different position is associated with risks.
Sleep is divided into different sleep stages in medicine. Different medical systems may define and number these stages differently; in Germany, these sleep stages are defined as ‘light sleep’, ‘deep sleep’ and ‘dream sleep’, which differ from each other in terms of brain activity, heartbeat and perception. Newborn sleep is different from adult sleep. Children are easier to wake up and the sleep stages are shorter overall. In newborns, the ‘dream sleep’ stage comes before the ‘deep sleep’ stage. Their ‘dream sleep’ stage is twice as long as that of adults.
The term ‘sediment’ in the maternity record (Mutterpass) stands for the values of the urine examination. The levels of protein, sugar, nitrite and blood in the urine are measured and recorded in urine tests. Based on these readings, doctors can identify various possible conditions such as gestational diabetes, a bacterial infection, kidney disease or a urinary tract infection.
Skeletal abnormality is the medical term for all skeletal deformities, i.e. abnormal human bone structure. If a pregnant person has any deformities that can have an influence on the birthing process, they are entered in the maternity record (Mutterpass). For example, an pregnant person could have an unusually small pelvis.
Sonography is the medical term for an ultrasound examination. An ultrasound examination enables the visualisation of body parts, tissues and organs. During prenatal check-ups, ultrasound scans provide images of the developing foetus. This examination can be used, for example, to detect deformities or abnormal developments in the foetus.
Spinal anesthesia is a medical procedure used during childbirth or surgery. It numbs the spine below the injection point. Spinal anesthesia involves injecting an anesthetic directly into the nerve fluid where the nerves of the spine are located.
A spontaneous birth is a birth that was not induced by medication and was carried out without obstetric interventions such as a caesarean section, vacuum extractor or forceps.
The stool colour chart is a tool for comparing a baby's stools to the colours of the different types of stools on the chart. The colour of the stool, for example, can be used to identify various illnesses. Especially in newborns, pale, colourless stools may indicate biliary disorders, which require quick treatment.
Tetanus is a disease that can be caused by bacteria in open wounds and is often fatal. A vaccination against tetanus is part of the basic immunisation programme and is recommended by the German Standing Commission on Vaccination starting from two months of age. This vaccination must be renewed every 10 years thereafter.
Thrombosis is the medical term for the formation of a blood clot, i.e. a blockage within a blood vessel. When thrombosis occurs in the heart, brain or lungs, there is acute danger to life. Thrombosis in the legs or arms can cause pain, swelling, and increased visibility of the veins. Especially in the last months of pregnancy, there is an increased risk of thrombosis in the abdomen, pelvis and legs. Thromboses can be treated with compression stockings, medication or surgery.
Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by parasites. Infection can be caused by eating uncooked meat products or unwashed fruits and vegetables, or by coming into contact with cat feces. Infection can be dangerous for immunocompromised individuals and pregnant people. Initial infection can be detected during pregnancy by blood test or amniocentesis, and such an infection can pose a danger to the developing foetus and cause subsequent damage.
Trimester is the medical term to describe one of the three phases a pregnancy is divided into. Pregnancy is divided into three equal sections of three months each. They are called the first, second and third trimesters. In each trimester, the embryo and then foetus reaches certain developmental milestones and certain prenatal tests are performed. Pregnancy symptoms may also differ in each trimester.
The uterine position refers to the distance between the pubic bone and the upper edge of the uterus. It is usually called fundal height in medicine. This measurement is recorded in the maternity record (Mutterpass) and can give medical professionals an indication of the week of pregnancy, uterine dilation and foetal growth.
Urinary incontinence, often called involuntary urination, is a condition in which sufferers have no or are not in full control over their urine. This may be due to accidents, age, pregnancy, spinal cord injury or disease. Urinary incontinence can be treated well in most cases with pelvic floor exercises, medication, weight loss or surgery.
An uncertain due date means that the week of pregnancy and thus the expected date of delivery cannot be determined with certainty. This may be the case if the mother does not know for sure the time of her last period or if the pregnancy was diagnosed late by a doctor. To determine an approximate date in these cases, foetal height and growth are used.
Uterine surgery is the medical term for all surgeries performed on the uterus, or womb. These include caesarean section, curettage, sterilisation and the removal of tumours. The corresponding information in the maternity record (Mutterpass) is intended to help healthcare professionals assess what risks may occur during pregnancy or childbirth.
The vocational training allowance is a form of financial assistance offered by the Federal Employment Agency. It supports people if they want to start a state-recognized training course but are unable to financially support themselves on their own.
Vernix caseosa, also called vernix or birthing custard, is the cheesy, waxy, white substance that babies are covered with at birth. This antibacterial layer protects the skin of the newborn during pregnancy and facilitates the birthing process. It is mainly made up of water and different fats. After birth, it protects the newborn from infections, cold and moisture loss.
Vacuum assisted delivery with a suction cup is used in obstetrics when the birth comes to a halt during the last phase of childbirth. In these cases, a suction cup is placed on the unborn baby’s head once it has already passed through the pelvic inlet. Then, the baby can be pulled through the birth canal with the help of negative pressure in the suction cup.
Vaginal sonography is the medical term for an ultrasound scan of the vagina. An ultrasound examination enables the visualisation of body parts, tissues and organs. During a vaginal ultrasound, an elongated ultrasound device is inserted deep into the vagina. This way doctors can examine the urethra, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes and the uterus, among other things. This is a screening test for the early detection of certain diseases, and can also discover a previously undetected pregnancy.
Varicoses is the medical term for varicose veins. In medicine, varicose veins are visibly dilated blood vessels under the skin. These occur most often in the legs. In some cases, there could be an underlying congestion of the blood vessels caused by obesity, pregnancy or lack of exercise. Varicose veins can lead to water retention, skin changes and ulcers and can be treated with compression therapy or surgery.
Veganism is derived from the word vegan. Vegan is a term used to describe a diet without any animal products. This means not only giving up meat, but also eggs, dairy products, honey and other foods that are not made from plants or mushrooms. Veganism can also be a way of life that rejects any form of animal exploitation.
Vulvar varices is the medical term for varicose veins in the pubic area. Varicose veins are dilated blood vessels. Dilated blood vessels often occur due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. Vulvar varices do not pose a great danger and disappear after childbirth in most cases. As a preventive measure, pregnant people can put their legs up and try not to lie or sit for too long at a stretch.
Whooping cough is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract. This very contagious disease is passed on by coughing, sneezing and talking. Because of the danger to children, the German Standing Commission on Vaccination recommends repeated vaccination of infants and young children against whooping cough. Vaccination provides the best possible protection against disease.
X-rays are images, usually of parts of the body, that are taken with the help of X-radiation. X-rays can be used to create these images of bones, muscles, organs and other tissues. Taking x-rays of pregnant people is possible to a limited extent because of the radiation, which can potentially damage tissue.
The yellow U-booklet, or children's examination booklet, is the booklet that parents receive from the maternity ward or midwife after childbirth. This booklet contains the results of all medical examinations performed during childhood, ranging from U1 to U9. The yellow U-booklet must be brought to every paediatric check-up. The U-booklet can be used by medical professionals to assess the development of the child's health.
Zygote is the technical biological term for a cell in which two pieces of genetic information have been fused together. In human reproduction, this is the egg fertilised by the sperm which contains the genetic information of both parents. Pregnancy begins when this fertilised egg implants in the uterus. Zygote is a stage in the embryonic development.
Lebensmonat des Kindes
Indirekter Coombs-Test positiv
Komplikationen post partum